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Infection usually begins with a few plants in early sown fields. This rot caused by Aspergillus spp. 2 and SSR markers closely linked to this locus. The resulting diseases cause important losses in production both in crop and after harvest. Corn planted and harvested late and grown under nitrogen stress more commonly contains aflatoxins prior to harvest than corn grown under good management practices and supplied with adequate nitrogen. Sow the resistant varieties like GS-2 and Ganga-101 which are comparatively resistant. Rain drizzle or even heavy dews allow disease formation. There are two fungal pathogens that cause GLS: Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina. The uredospores constitute both primary and secondary inoculum and are carried to maize plants by wind or on infected materials. Wineland]: The disease appears both on young and adult plants of maize. Diseases of Maize Downy mildew/Crazy top Sorghum downy mildew - Peronosclerospora sorghi Phlippine downy mildew - Peronosclerospora philippinensis Crazy top - Sclerophthora macrospora Symptoms The most characteristic symptom is the development of chlorotic streaks on the leaves. The cob formation either does not take place or the grain formation is partial or wholly affected. A yield loss of 63 per cent was recorded in the tarai areas of U.P. 30-42°C and low soil moisture. Another technique used is comparing inoculated vs. uninoculated plots. It is externally seed borne and soil borne. Since only few plants are affected in a field it is possible to locate and destroy the infected ears before they shed the ears. Maize grown in cooler areas usually contains low amount of mycotoxin. Although, the disease may be externally seed-borne, the major source of infection is soil-borne inoculums. Common Smut. Sporangia are produced at low temperature (20-22°C), while oospores are formed at high temperature. Field should be cleaned off the trash after harvest. Losses in grain yield showed a high positive correlation with premature death of plants and disease index. The presence of Polysora rust in the peninsular India, particularly in states like Karnataka, could have an adverse impact on maize production. This leaf diseases on maize is a fungal disease that occurs in most of South Africa’s maize producing areas. In order to diagnose diseases correctly, a diagnostic method based on hyperspectral imaging technology for Curvularia lunata and Aureobasidium zeae was proposed. Three viruses occurs on maize in India. Mosaic Virus (Mosaic Virus Transmitted by Leafhopper): Small white fleck may occur on one side of the midrib near the base of the young leaf and is usually associated with whitening of veins. Diseases of maize 1. The disease lesions are characterised by the presence of alternate bleached areas or zones that are initially water soaked and narrow, purple brown bands oriented perpendicular to long axis of leaves or leaf sheaths. These are maize mosaic virus I, maize mosaic (a strain of sugarcane mosaic virus) and vein enotion. Now it is present in J&K, H.P., U..P, M.P., Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, W.B., Meghalaya and Assam. Fungi associated with the cob rots are— Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium species, Gibberella zeae, Penicillium etc. All the Peronoslerospora incited diseases are of old world origin, three of which namely, P. sorghi, P. sacchari, and P. phillipinensis are of common occurrence in India. Seed treatment with captan or thiram at the rate 3 g/kg seed. SINCE 1856 Oospores remain viable for at least three years and this viable oospores material constitutes the main source of inoculums. 5 References. TOS4. The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, 167-181. Pythium Stalk Rot Disease [P. aphanidermatum (Eds.) Downy Mildews Disease 4. The characteristic symptoms is the blackening of the vascular bundles as black dots on the cut ends of the stalk. iii. These field fungi infect the cobs either immediately or before harvest. The pathogen has the potential of being destructive if infection comes after anthesis. Viral and fungal diseases are recorded as causing mortality of armyworms. The major diseases are: four foliar diseases, two pre‐flowering and three post‐flowering stalk rots, four downy mildews and two sheath diseases. The black powdery masses are the chlamydospores of the fungus. 5. Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight (BLSB) of Maize- Discussed ! The plants are pale green, stunted and show mosaic mottling on the leaves. Sun drying of seeds lead to inactivation of mycelium present in seed and also reduce moisture levels. The magnitude of grain loss may reach as high as 100 per cent if the ear rot phase of the disease predominates. Trichoderma strains obtained from maize cobs displayed typical characteristics of this genus on PDA plates, such as initial growth of white mycelium, soon turning into green, and gray-green colonies, while the reverse side of the culture plates stayed uncoloured or light yellow.Trichoderma ear rot infection is characterized by white … Share Your PDF File iv. SEEDING . The disease was earlier reported as a minor disease on maize. It occurs in many parts of the world, and it is a recent introduction in the peninsular India in 1991 (Karnataka and Tamil Nadu during rainy season and Coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh during winter) on certain maize cultivars in Mysore distric. The developing mycelium between the thin walled cells induces hypertrophy. Typically, the first sign of stalk rot is plant wilting. Use only disease resistant hybrids and composites in disease prone areas. Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Assam and Odisha. It is caused by incited by Thanatephorus sasakii (Shirai) Tu & Kimbro; anamorph Rhizoctonia solani f.sp. The lack of information is more acute in the developing countries, where there is a lack of trained personnel and appropriate equipment, and mostly to the concept that when these viral diseases are present, nothing can be done to control them. ), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF FRENCH BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF MAIZE (Zea mays), SUSTAINABLE PEST MANAGEMENT IN GREEN HOUSES AND HIGH TUNNELS, How to make Your Own Animal Feeds (For Cattles and Sheep), DISEASES OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus), Graphical Representation of Market Prices for September 2020, Graphical Representation of Market Prices for March 2020. In this study, we wanted to evaluate the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as biocontrol agent to fight some newly isolated endemic fungal pathogens infesting maize. This has been found to be prevalent in the several states and the incidence ranges from 2.2 to 10.6 per cent. The presence of mycotoxin traditionally regarded as indication of poor storage condition, but they may present in grains before coming to storage. Infection follows some form of injury, bird damage, feeding of corn borers. Disease develops rapidly in warm weather and uredospores comprise both primary and secondary inoculum. Pests, weeds and disease in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality. At first, the upper leaves show signs of wilting. Mycotoxins produced in rotted basal part of the stem may contribute to forage maize contamination, but usually remain in the stubbles after harvest. In young seedlings the plants dry up in the early stage of the growth. Answer Now and help others. Biology, Plant Pathology, India, Cereals, Maize, Diseases, Diseases in Maize. The telia are circular to elongate, 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter dark chocolate brown to black and remain covered by the epidermis longer then the common rust. There are a multitude of maize varieties available. Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. The most diagnostic feature of this disease is that the rot is contained mostly to a single basal internode leading to destruction of pith parenchyma and consequent weakening to the stalk. Losses due to stalk rot may occur in the following three ways: i. At the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rajouri and MBRSS, Poonch, it was moderate to high. The downy mildew fungi are mostly on alternate hosts and perenate through oospores which falls down in the soil and secondary infection takes place by means of conidia which are wind disseminated. A major QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 10, explained 83% of the phenotypic variation, with the NC300 allele carrying the resistance. Sometimes the stripes coalesce and form yellow bands of the leaves. In cloudy weather, the growth is profuse and can be seen. Black Bundle Disease and Late Wilt:. High disease incidence is linked with irrigation by sewage water, it is particularly favoured by high temperature (28°C and above) and the high ambient moisture which commonly prevails in the most of the maize growing areas 3 to 4 week after sowing. i. The spore retain viability for two years. The disease appears on plants at pre- flowering stage (40 to 50-day old plant) and within a period of 15 to 20 days spreads under favourable conditions from the lower most sheath to the ear shoot. Rust (Puccinia sorghi), the symptoms are patches of brown to orange blotches on the upper leaf surface. In India, significant loss in maize yield is usually localized to late planted areas. Fitzp. Erwinia Stalk Rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Sow the seed before rainy season begins. Maize aphid: Attacks are on leaves as a black fungal growth (called sooty mold) often occurs on the honeydew secreted by aphids. Diplodia ear rot is a notable maize disease in South Africa. Highly resistant genotypes have smaller uredosori than the moderately resistant or susceptible ones. In paired plant technique, grain yields of adjacent diseased and healthy plants are compared. THE FUTURE . The presence of downy whitish to creamy growth usually on the ventral surface of the infected leaves corresponding to- stripes is the most characteristic symptom. The growth of the fungus can be seen on both the surfaces of the stripes. It is a major disease in the mountainous areas and in the deep hillside areas of Rajouri and Poonch districts, especially in the cool and shady environment of intermediate zone of J&K. Acidovorax avenae (Manns) Willems et … The tooth pick method as described for post flowering stalk rot development can be used to inoculate plants at knee high stage (30-35 days) for screening genotypes, Payak (1971), Payak and Sharma (1985). This results in reduced grain quality and potential dockage when the grain is marketed. If conditions are favourable and the disease is present in the host plant then it will start to develop and take over the plant. The gall may appear on the stem, leaves, axillary’s buds and parts of the male flower. zeae Victoria, Arboleda and Munoj): It is one of the most important disease of maize in tropical countries. It is important that, where a disease outbreak is feared, spraying should be undertaken at an early stage of crop growth, i.e. In some cases the infection (light to dark brown rotting) may spread rapidly throughout the leaf sheath and cause withering of leaf sheath and leaf under favourable environmental conditions. Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots, smuts and ear rots. Water soaked, brown lesions appear on roots which turn brown later on. at the time of silking. PEST AND DISEASES OF MAIZE Pests of Maize (1) Stem borers: The larvae bore holes into young stems and destroy the tissue, leading to low yield or death of the plant. Maize Field Guide Maize Crop Development, Pests and Diseases. Black Bundle Disease (Cephalosporium acremonium Corda): Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight (BLSB) Disease, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. The specks elongated to form fine discontinuous stripes. The highest disease intensity i.e. ii. They are brittle, usually two celled constricted at the septum and born on the short 10-30 pm persistant brownish pedicels one fourth length of the spore. i. Seeds with less than 15 per cent moisture content produce healthy plants. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! The symptoms manifest on leaves, sheaths, stalk and ear. 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